Saturday, September 28, 2019

Children families and communities Community Violence and International Essay

Children families and communities Community Violence and International Conflict - Essay Example This essay reviews the violence and community and international level. Community violence exposes children to emotional and behavioural problems and perpetrates violence. Intervention to prevent vulnerability to violence improves the life chances and reduces violence in vulnerable communities. Community violence causes aggression, depression and anxiety among children in the community (Garbarino, Hammond, Mercy & Yung, 2004). Factors increasing risk for exposure to community violence Research shows stressful life events, behavioural problems and the family characteristics as some of the risk factors exposing children to community violence. 1. Living in lower socioeconomic areas The presence of socioeconomic resources exposes children to community violence and aggression. Historically, the African Americans are affected disproportionately by unemployment, poverty and exposure to community violence. African Americans, especially male youths, are affected significantly by the juvenile d iscrepancy and the gun crimes. People living in low socioeconomic areas  may be adversely affected by the community violence (Spencer, Fegley & Harpalani, 2003). 2. Being from a minority group Ethnic minority are disproportionately affected by violence. ... 3. Exposure to domestic violence Children exposed to domestic violence exhibit behavioural disorders like delinquency and aggression. Domestic violence causes mood and emotional disorders like anxiety and depression, and the posttraumatic symptoms of stress like sleep disturbances. Domestic violence such as sexual assault leads to sexual abuse in the community. A child interprets domestic and community violence as unsafe world, and the ‘unworthiness’ for protection in life. This engenders helplessness and leads to negative perceptions. The posttraumatic stress disorder exposes the child to community violence because they impair behavioural and social functioning (Voisin, 2007). 4. Parental substance abuse Substance abuse by parents expose children to unpredictable behaviours. Behaviour changes from loving to withdrawal that causes chaos in the community. Despite of the sufferings that these children go through, the parents are to blame for the substance abuse. Children f rom families that abuse drugs are under constant fear of physical violence or incest. The youngsters suffer from the post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression and war crimes. Parental substance abuse affects the normal child development exposing youngsters to mental, physical and health problems (Sheidow, Gorman-Smith, Tolan & Henry, 2001). 5. Communities low in social capital The low social capital exposes children to community violence due to the reduction in accessibility to social resources, dysfunctional families and the overall fearful environment that substitutes the participation and cooperation in the community. Poverty and community violence is mediated through the availability of social institutions (Voisin,

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