Thursday, August 8, 2019

UNO Peace Keeping Operation in Middle East Research Paper

UNO Peace Keeping Operation in Middle East - Research Paper Example Earlier after First World War, League of Nation was established for this purpose but it failed and Second World War started. In 1941 Franklin D. Roosevelt, the President of United States of America had a meeting with Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister of United Kingdom of Great Britain. It paved the way to Atlantic Charter, which referred to a set of principles to maintain global peace and cooperation among the comity of nations. After two years in 1943, both the leaders, along with Joseph Stalin of Russia, emphasized to establish an organization to maintain international peace. In 1944, at Dumbarton Oaks conference in Washington D.C., the first sketch of UN was drawn and in February 1945, these three leaders established a voting process for the United Nations (Webel and Galtung 2007, 95)1. In 1945, in San Francisco, legislative body of 50 countries had a joint agreement to save the world from the barbaric consequences of war. In addition, to maintain security UNO charter includes poverty reduction, providing health and education facilities and provide financial assistant to needy members (Barash and Webel, 2008) . To maintain peace in the world UNO has established special subsidiary known as United Nation peace keeping operation it help countries to deal with disturb and quarrelling areas. The major division of the United Nations for peacekeeping is Security Council. It has 15 members out of which five permanent member nations have the power to veto any kind of decision even if most of the members agree to a resolution. These permanent five members having power to veto any resolution are: France, Russia, China, United Kingdom, and United States of America. These countries took part in the formation of United Nations and defined certain norms for United Nations to be followed (Durch 1993, 23-85)3. Therefore, an entire change in their biased approach is strongly needed and their mistakes of past should not be repeated again. This revolutionary change can only take place if the members of the UN make proper and unbiased use of their veto power beyond any prejudice and ambiguity and merely in favour of justice. As per statistics of December 31,2010, there are about 1,23000 troops working at 16 sites under the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations(DPKO) in the four continents directly impacting hundreds and millions of people by saving their lives and providing security to the instable areas of the world. The UN peacekeeping operation does not have the troops of its own; instead it depends on the contribution by Member states, therefore, 115 countries have engaged their military and police personnel in line with UN peacekeeping mission (Collier and Hoeffler, 2004)4. The first task UNPKO took was during 1950’s .In 1960 one of complex and controversial task assign to UNPKO was Congo mission which lasted till June 1964.UN was successful in its mission but committed some mistakes ( Sitkowski 2006, 206-96)5. The UN peacekeeping force entered Congo as a neutral entity to enact law and order. After two years it started to support actively the Congolese government for the secession of the province of Katanga. The transformation of UN from a neutral peace keeper to an evident quarrelsome was observed. Although UN was succeeded in achieving its basic mission in Congo, but at the end of crisis it was not crowned as true peace keeper force (Barash and Webel 2008, 506)6. Similarly when the Beirut force was established, principles of

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